Purpose . To better understand the nature of drug-excipient interactions we have studied the phase behavior of amorphous binary and ternary mixtures of citric acid, indomethacin and PVP, as model systems.
Methods . We have prepared amorphous mixtures by co-melting or coprecipitation from solvents, and have measured glass transition temperatures with differential scanning calorimetry.
Results . Citric acid and indomethacin in the amorphous state are miscible up to 0.25 weight fraction of citric acid, equivalent to about 2 moles of citric acid and 3 moles of indomethacin. Phase separation, as reflected by two Tg values, occurs without crystallization leading to a saturated citric acid-indomethacin amorphous phase and one essentially containing only citric acid. PVP-citric acid and PVP-indomethacin form non-ideal miscible systems at all compositions. A ternary system containing 0.3 weight fraction of PVP produces a completely miscible system at all citric acid-indomethacin compositions. The use of 0.2 weight fraction of PVP, however, only produces miscibility up to a weight fraction of 0.4 citric acid relative to indomethacin. The two phases above this point appear to contain citric acid in PVP and citric acid in indomethacin, respectively.
Conclusions . Two components of an amorphous solid mixture containing citric acid and indomethacin with limited solid state miscibility can be solublized as an amorphous solid phase by the addition of moderate levels of PVP.